The Swedish Renaissance
By Hayat Elsamoudi
The coming of the renaissance and the acceptance of the protestant religion in Sweden in the 16th century brought architectural changes imported from Italy via Belgium and Holland.
Surrounded by shores of lake Mälaren, Gripsholm castle towers above the town of Mariefred in Södermanland. Gripsholm is known as Gustav Vasa’s castle. however, there was already a stronghold here in the 14th century, built by seneschal ( noble steward) of the realm known as Bo Jonsson Grip. During the late middle ages, the castle was donated to a Carthusian monastery founded in Mariefred. At the time of the reformation, the monastery became state property, and in 1537 construction began on the current castle, under the direction of a builder known as Henrik Von Köllen. The castle became not only a national defence structure but also an official residence of the renaissance, Prince Gustav Vasa.
This analysis discusses the importance of Gripsholm castle during the renaissance. It depicts how the renaissance style has reached northern Europe and played a huge role in shaping the history of that region especially Sweden. It analyzes Gripsholm castle’s significance through the construction development overtime.
Mariefred, an old town with a royal history, was founded in 14th century, the name Mariefred means “Maria’s peace” or pax Mariae like the monastery that gave the town its name. Throughout history kings and noblemen built their castles in areas such as Mariefred as it has the most fertile region.
Mariefred is located by Mälaren,the third largest lake in Sweden, which flows all the way to Stockholm and is connected with the baltic sea through canals and channels. its has more than 1,200 islands, with a total area of 189 square miles. The waters protect the castle from attacks, defense mechanism.
The lake also helps irrigate the landscape as well as embelish it. Since sweden has many islands surounding its mainland, kings and noblemen utilize them to display their wealth, power, and significance through the designing and building of grandeur castles and gardens.
Four major individuals shaped Sweden throughout the renaissance period due to their position and power for only noblemen and members of the royal family have the authority to control any aspects related to Sweden.
Bo Jonsson Grip (1330-1386)
Bo Jonsson (1330-1386) was head of the royal council and marshal under the regency of Magnus IV of Sweden. He dominated the political life of Sweden and Finland. he controlled many fortresses, Kalmar castle and Nyköping castle, and Gripsholm built under his own direction.
Gustav Vasa (1523-1560)
Gustav Vasa (1523-1560) seized the land and built a fortification with circular corner towers and a defensive wall. Gripsholm was built primarily for military purposes, but after its completion it became one of the official royal residences of the Swedish monarchy.
Erik XIV (1560–1568)
Erik XIV (1560–1568) held his brother Johan prisoner in Gripsholm. a few years later, Erik himself was held prisoner here together with his wife Karin Månsdotter. Eric XIV was deposed by john, where Gripsholm castle came to serve as prison for both Erik and John.
Hedwig Eleonora (1636-1715)
Hedwig Eleonora (1636-1715) was given Gripsholm as a dower for queens Maria Eleonora (widow of Gustav II) and Hedvig Eleonora (widow of Karl X). Hedvig Eleonora made considerable interior changes and additions based on renaissance style among them the queen’s wing.
Gripsholm Castle still stands as a fortress, a mean of protection, for it was first built as a medieval building; yet, through time it has been modified to fit through the many styles of time using different construction material, methods, and techniques.
Gripsholm castle was first built during the medieval period but later reconstructed to stand as the most renaissance building in Sweden. The main material used for this castle is brick which was first used during the period of ancient Egypt through the roman empire and continued during the medieval and renaissance period. Brick was more known in Northern Europe after its use during the romanesque and gothic period due to the Hanseatic period and that Northern Europe held onto the gothic style for a long period of time.
Thus the renaissance reached Sweden with delay leading to the adoption of renaissance elements into brick building. Then the domes and roof were composed of metal mainly copper for it was durable, corrosion resistant, prestigious, and able to form complex shapes. Copper roof can last up to 100 years, which makes it far more durable than most other roofing choices. In fact, Stockholm is a city close to lake and sea. It is also a city with many copper roofs, especially in the old town. Most of these roofs have the green tint. The tradition of using copper tiles for roofs is at least 400 years old and is related to the copper production in Sweden at Stora Kopparberget. When Stockholm grew and became a more continental city during the 17th century, the great power age of Sweden, a lot of new palaces and other stone houses were built and fitted with copper roofs.
The Duke Charles Chamber is the most famous 16th century room in the castle, and one of Sweden’s best preserved interiors from the period. During the time of Duke Charles, later King Charles IX, the castle was extensively renovated and extended and that included the construction of a new royal floor with a royal salon, Charles ix’s royal wing, and Duke Charles’ Chamber, which has been preserved in its original form and is still untouched to this day with its elaborate ornamented details.
In the time when the widow queen, Hedvig Eleonora, had Gripsholm castle as a fief (land grants), new construction works were carried out, including what is known as the queen’s wing in the 1690s. The interior is quite big, with many rooms and corridors, furnished in the 16th to the 19th century styles. Gripsholm castle is also home to the national portrait gallery, one of the oldest and largest portrait collections in the world. The gallery held about 4000 works. the current collection has over 4500 portraits of not only kings and queens, but also of prominent Swedish personalities.
Gripsholm castle regardless of its massing remains a balanced building with a repeated rhythm in structure through its columns and domes.
The plan of the castle shows the irregularities in construction, which belongs to the middle ages. However there is a sense of balance regarding the three cylindrical towers. The towers stand as a symbol to command and defend strategic points with reduced forces and to emphasize a noble residence as well. The towers are composed of a dome- vaulted arch- structure resting upon a rotunda that is then supported by columns that transition to the dome as both structural or decorative elements set against the wall in the form of pilasters to define spaces.
The structure creates a sense of order to the castle from the exterior as well as the interior. It gives a hierarchical significance to the spaces created within the towers which then anchors the castle to its site. the structure of the castle creates the balance needed for Gripsholm to break from the irregularity of its overall form.
Gripsholm stands as a significant building in the history of Sweden. It was the first step towards capturing the essence of the renaissance style and remains the first step to Sweden’s journey through rebirth and renewal.
Gripsholm Castle is a significant building in Sweden. It is considered as the most renaissance looking building in the country. Even though it doesn’t portray the exact image of what a renaissance building looked like during 14th century through the 17th century, it stands as one in Northern Europe. This depicts the influence of so many factors like religion, politics, exploration, and war. Gripsholm Castle is important because it shows the transition of architectural style that traveled across Europe and more. It depicts the renaissance style as a style that molds according to culture and site, it depicts the fluidity ideas changing and evolving to match local cultural thinking and conditions, although always remaining true to its ideals.
Given the fact Gripsholm was first a medieval castle, a sense of rigidness and security exists when in Italy renaissance was seen as a classical antiquity of symmetry, proportion, geometry, and harmony. Gripsholm depicts this balance in its four round towers placed symmetrical around a hexagonal volume. these round towers are the most significant feature in Gripsolm Castle showcasing genera, taxis, and symmetry. These features are reflected within the castle through columns, materials, ornamentation, and art.